Database Connection Settings

Craft supports several database connection settings that give you control over how Craft connects to the database.

Ultimately, database connection settings must be set from config/db.php, but we recommend you initially set them as environment variables (such as in your .env file), and then pull the environment variable value into config/db.php using getenv() (opens new window).

For example, in a new Craft 3 project, your .env file should define these environment variables:

ENVIRONMENT="dev"
SECURITY_KEY=""
DB_DRIVER="mysql"
DB_SERVER="<host>"
DB_PORT="<port>"
DB_DATABASE="<dbname>"
DB_USER="root"
DB_PASSWORD=""
DB_SCHEMA="public"
DB_TABLE_PREFIX=""

The variables that start with DB_ are database connection settings, and they get pulled into config/db.php like this:

return [
    'driver' => getenv('DB_DRIVER'),
    'server' => getenv('DB_SERVER'),
    'port' => getenv('DB_PORT'),
    'database' => getenv('DB_DATABASE'),
    'user' => getenv('DB_USER'),
    'password' => getenv('DB_PASSWORD'),
    'schema' => getenv('DB_SCHEMA'),
    'tablePrefix' => getenv('DB_TABLE_PREFIX'),
];

You may also provide a DB_DSN environment variable. If defined, Craft will use that.

We recommend this environment variable approach for two reasons:

  1. It keeps sensitive information out of your project’s codebase. (.env files should never be shared or committed to Git.)
  2. It makes collaborating with other developers easier, as each developer can define their own settings without overwriting someone else’s settings.

Here’s the full list of database connection settings that Craft supports:

# attributes

Allowed types
array (opens new window)
Default value
[]
Defined by
DbConfig::$attributes (opens new window)

An array of key => value pairs of PDO attributes to pass into the PDO constructor.

For example, when using the MySQL PDO driver (opens new window), if you wanted to enable a SSL database connection (assuming SSL is enabled in MySQL (opens new window) and 'user' can connect via SSL, you’d set these:

[
    PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_KEY    => '/path/to/my/client-key.pem',
    PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CERT   => '/path/to/my/client-cert.pem',
    PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CA     => '/path/to/my/ca-cert.pem',
],

# charset

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
'utf8'
Defined by
DbConfig::$charset (opens new window)

The charset to use when creating tables.

# database

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$database (opens new window)

The name of the database to select.

# driver

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$driver (opens new window)

The database driver to use. Either 'mysql' for MySQL or 'pgsql' for PostgreSQL.

# dsn

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$dsn (opens new window)

The Data Source Name (“DSN”) that tells Craft how to connect to the database.

DSNs should begin with a driver prefix (mysql: or pgsql:), followed by driver-specific parameters. For example, mysql:host=127.0.0.1;port=3306;dbname=acme_corp.

# password

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
''
Defined by
DbConfig::$password (opens new window)

The database password to connect with.

# port

Allowed types
integer (opens new window)
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$port (opens new window)

The database server port. Defaults to 3306 for MySQL and 5432 for PostgreSQL.

# schema

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
'public'
Defined by
DbConfig::$schema (opens new window)

The schema that Postgres is configured to use by default (PostgreSQL only).

# server

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$server (opens new window)

The database server name or IP address. Usually localhost or 127.0.0.1.

# tablePrefix

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
''
Defined by
DbConfig::$tablePrefix (opens new window)

If you’re sharing Craft installs in a single database (MySQL) or a single database and using a shared schema (PostgreSQL), you can set a table prefix here to avoid per-install table naming conflicts. This can be no more than 5 characters, and must be all lowercase.

# unixSocket

Allowed types
string (opens new window), null (opens new window)
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$unixSocket (opens new window)

MySQL only. If this is set, the CLI connection string (used for yiic) will connect to the Unix socket instead of the server and port. If this is specified, then server and port settings are ignored.

# url

Allowed types
string (opens new window), null (opens new window)
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$url (opens new window)

The database connection URL, if one was provided by your hosting environment.

If this is set, the values for driver (opens new window), user (opens new window), database (opens new window), server (opens new window), port (opens new window), and database (opens new window) will be extracted from it.

# user

Allowed types
string (opens new window)
Default value
'root'
Defined by
DbConfig::$user (opens new window)

The database username to connect with.