Functions

The following functions (opens new window) are available to Twig templates in Craft:

Function Description
actionInput Outputs a hidden action input.
actionUrl Generates a controller action URL.
alias Parses a string as an alias.
attr Generates HTML attributes.
attribute (opens new window) Accesses a dynamic attribute of a variable.
beginBody Outputs scripts and styles that were registered for the “begin body” position.
block (opens new window) Prints a block’s output.
ceil Rounds a number up.
className Returns the fully qualified class name of a given object.
clone Clones an object.
combine Combines two arrays into one.
configure Sets attributes on the passed object.
constant (opens new window) Returns the constant value for a given string.
create Creates a new object.
csrfInput Returns a hidden CSRF token input.
cpUrl Generates a control panel URL.
cycle (opens new window) Cycles on an array of values.
dataUrl Outputs an asset or file as a base64-encoded data URL.
date Creates a date.
dump (opens new window) Dumps information about a variable.
endBody Outputs scripts and styles that were registered for the “end body” position.
expression Creates a database expression object.
failMessageInput Outputs a hidden failMessage input.
floor Rounds a number down.
getenv Returns the value of an environment variable.
gql Executes a GraphQL query against the full schema.
head Outputs scripts and styles that were registered for the “head” position.
hiddenInput Outputs a hidden input.
include (opens new window) Returns the rendered content of a template.
input Outputs an HTML input.
max (opens new window) Returns the biggest value in an array.
min (opens new window) Returns the lowest value in an array.
ol Outputs an array of items as an ordered list.
parent (opens new window) Returns the parent block’s output.
parseEnv Parses a string as an environment variable or alias.
plugin Returns a plugin instance by its handle.
random (opens new window) Returns a random value.
range (opens new window) Returns a list containing an arithmetic progression of integers.
raw Wraps the given string in a Twig\Markup object to prevent it from getting HTML-encoded when output.
redirectInput Outputs a hidden redirect input.
seq Outputs the next or current number in a sequence.
shuffle Randomizes the order of the items in an array.
siteUrl Generates a front-end URL.
successMessageInput Outputs a hidden successMessage input.
svg Outputs an SVG document.
source (opens new window) Returns the content of a template without rendering it.
tag Outputs an HTML tag.
template_from_string (opens new window) Loads a template from a string.
ul Outputs an array of items as an unordered list.
url Generates a URL.

# actionInput

A shortcut for outputting a hidden input used to route a POST request to a particular controller action. This is effectively the same as writing <input type="hidden" name="action" value="controller/action/route"> directly into a template.

{{ actionInput('users/save-user') }}

You can optionally set additional attributes on the tag by passing an options argument.

{{ actionInput('users/save-user', {
  id: 'action-input'
}) }}

# actionUrl

Returns a controller action URL, automatically accounting for relative vs. absolute format and the active actionTrigger setting.

# Arguments

The actionUrl() function has the following arguments:

  • path – The path that the resulting URL should point to on your site. It will be appended to your base site URL.
  • params – Any query string parameters that should be appended to the URL. This can be either a string (e.g. 'foo=1&bar=2') or a hash (e.g. {foo:'1', bar:'2'}).
  • scheme – Which scheme the URL should use ('http' or 'https'). The default value depends on whether the current request is served over SSL or not. If not, then the scheme in your Site URL will be used; if so, then https will be used.

# alias

Passes a string through Craft::getAlias() (opens new window), which will check if the string begins with an alias (opens new window). (See Configuration for more info.)

<img src="{{ alias('@assetBaseUrl/images/logo.png') }}">

# attr

Generates a list of HTML attributes based on the given hash, using yii\helpers\BaseHtml::renderTagAttributes() (opens new window).

{% set myAttributes = {
  class: ['one', 'two'],
  disabled: true,
  readonly: false,
  data: {
    baz: 'Escape this "',
    qux: {
      some: ['data', '"quoted"']
    }
  },
  style: {
    'background-color': 'red',
    'font-size': '20px'
  },
} %}

<div {{ attr(myAttributes) }}></div>

# beginBody

Outputs any scripts and styles that were registered for the “begin body” position. It should be placed right after your <body> tag.

<body>
  {{ beginBody() }}

  <h1>{{ page.name }}</h1>
  {{ page.body }}
</body>

# block

Prints a block’s output.

This works identically to Twig’s core block (opens new window) function.

# ceil

Rounds a number up.

{{ ceil(42.1) }}
{# Output: 43 #}

# className

Returns the fully qualified class name of a given object.

{% set class = className(entry) %}
{# Result: 'craft\\elements\\Entry' #}

# clone

Clones a given object.

{% set query = craft.entries.section('news') %}
{% set articles = clone(query).type('articles') %}

# combine

Combines two arrays into one, using the first array to define the keys, and the second array to define the values.

{% set arr1 = ['a', 'b', 'c'] %}
{% set arr2 = ['foo', 'bar', 'baz'] %}
{% set arr3 = combine(arr1, arr2) %}
{# arr3 will now be `{a: 'foo', b: 'bar', c: 'baz'}` #}

# configure

Passes through the behavior of the Craft::configure() method inherited from Yii::configure() (opens new window). It’s similar to create in that it applies attributes to an object, but instead of creating new instances it accepts an existing object and modifies it.

{# Modify an `EntryQuery` object set up by a relational field: #}
{% set myRelatedEntries = configure(entry.myEntriesField, {
  section: 'blog'
}).all() %}

It can also be used instead of the merge (opens new window) filter:

{% set myObject = { one: 'Original' } %}
{# With `merge`: #}
{% set myObject = myObject | merge({ one: 'Overridden', two: 'New' }) %}

{# With `configure`: #}
{% do configure(myObject, { one: 'Overridden', two: 'New' }) %}

It could technically even be used to set a model or element’s attributes, even though that’s not a great idea since templates generally present content rather than modify it:

{% do configure(entry, { title: 'New Title' }) %}
{% do craft.app.elements.saveElement(entry) %}

# constant

Returns the constant value for a given string.

This works identically to Twig’s core constant (opens new window) function.

# create

Creates a new object instance based on a given class name or object configuration. See Yii::createObject() (opens new window) for a full explanation of supported arguments.

{# Pass in a class name #}
{% set cookie = create('yii\\web\\Cookie') %}

{# Or a full object configuration hash #}
{% set cookie = create({
  class: 'yii\\web\\cookie',
  name: 'foo',
  value: 'bar'
}) %}

# cpUrl

Returns a control panel URL, automatically accounting for relative vs. absolute format and the active cpTrigger setting.

<a href="{{ cpUrl('settings') }}">Visit control panel settings</a>

# Arguments

The cpUrl() function has the following arguments:

  • path – The path that the resulting URL should point to on your site. It will be appended to your base site URL.
  • params – Any query string parameters that should be appended to the URL. This can be either a string (e.g. 'foo=1&bar=2') or a hash (e.g. {foo:'1', bar:'2'}).
  • scheme – Which scheme the URL should use ('http' or 'https'). The default value depends on whether the current request is served over SSL or not. If not, then the scheme in your Site URL will be used; if so, then https will be used.

# csrfInput

Returns a hidden CSRF Token input. All sites that have CSRF Protection enabled must include this in each form that submits via POST.

{{ csrfInput() }}

You can optionally set additional attributes on the tag by passing an options argument.

{{ csrfInput({
  id: 'csrf-input'
}) }}

# dataUrl

Outputs an asset or file as a base64-encoded data URL (opens new window). You can pass it an craft\elements\Asset (opens new window) object or a file path (optionally using an alias).

{# Asset object `myLogoAsset` #}
<img src="{{ dataUrl(myLogoAsset) }}" />

{# File path, optionally using an alias #}
<img src="{{ dataUrl('@webroot/images/my-logo-asset.svg') }}" />

{# Output: <img src="data:image/svg+xml;base64,PHN2ZyBoZWlnaHQ9IjEwMCIgdmd(...)" /> #}

The dataUrl() function has the following arguments:

  • file - The asset or path to a file to be encoded.
  • mimeType - Optional MIME type. If omitted, the file’s MIME type will be determined automatically.

# date

Converts an argument to a date to allow comparison, like Twig’s date() function (opens new window).

The argument can be one of PHP’s supported date and time formats (opens new window), or additionally a date/time array.

{% if date(asset.dateModified) < date('-2days') %}
  {# asset is not new #}
{% endif %}

A null or empty argument defaults to the current date:

{% if date() > date('2021/06/01') %}
  {# today is past June 1, 2021 #}
{% endif %}

Craft additionally supports passing a date/time array:

{% set myDate = {
  date: '2021-01-15',
  timezone: 'America/Los_Angeles',
  time: '10:57',
} %}

{% if now > date(myDate) %}
  {# today is past January 15, 2021 #}
{% endif %}

# endBody

Outputs any scripts and styles that were registered for the “end body” position. It should be placed right before your </body> tag.

<body>
  <h1>{{ page.name }}</h1>
  {{ page.body }}

  {{ endBody() }}
</body>

# expression

Creates and returns a new yii\db\Expression (opens new window) object, for use in database queries.

{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .andWhere(expression('[[authorId]] = :authorId', {authorId: currentUser.id}))
  .all() %}

# failMessageInput

Shortcut for typing <input type="hidden" name="failMessage" value="{{ 'Custom fail message'|hash }}">.

{{ failMessageInput('Custom fail message') }}

You can optionally set additional attributes on the tag by passing an options argument.

{{ failMessageInput('Custom fail message', {
  id: 'fail-message-input'
}) }}

# floor

Rounds a number down.

{{ floor(42.9) }}
{# Output: 42 #}

# getenv

Returns the value of an environment variable.

{{ getenv('MAPS_API_KEY') }}

# gql

Executes a GraphQL query against the full schema.

{% set result = gql('{
  entries (section: "news", limit: 2, orderBy: "dateCreated DESC") {
    postDate @formatDateTime (format: "Y-m-d")
    title
    url
    ... on news_article_Entry {
      shortDescription
      featuredImage {
        url @transform (width: 300, immediately: true)
        altText
      }
    }
  }
}') %}

{% for entry in result.data %}
  <h3><a href="{{ entry.url }}">{{ entry.title }}</a></h3>
  <p class="timestamp">{{ entry.postDate }}</p>

  {% set image = entry.featuredImage[0] %}
  <img class="thumb" src="{{ image.url }}" alt="{{ image.altText }}">

  {{ entry.shortDescription|markdown }}
  <p><a href="{{ entry.url }}">Continue reading…</a></p>
{% endfor %}

Outputs any scripts and styles that were registered for the “head” position. It should be placed right before your </head> tag.

<head>
  <title>{{ siteName }}</title>
  {{ head() }}
</head>

# hiddenInput

Generates an HTML input tag.

{{ hiddenInput('entryId', entry.id) }}
{# Output: <input type="hidden" name="entryId" value="100"> #}

You can optionally set additional attributes on the tag by passing an options argument.

{{ hiddenInput('entryId', entry.id, {
  id: 'entry-id-input'
}) }}

# include

Returns the rendered content of a template.

This works identically to Twig’s core include (opens new window) function.

# input

Generates an HTML input tag.

{{ input('email', 'email-input', '') }}
{# Output: <input type="email" name="email-input" value=""> #}

You can optionally set additional attributes on the tag by passing an options argument.

{{ input('email', 'email-input', '', {
  id: 'custom-input'
}) }}
{# Output: <input type="email" id="custom-input" name="email-input" value=""> #}

# max

Returns the biggest value in an array.

This works identically to Twig’s core max (opens new window) function.

# min

Returns the lowest value in an array.

This works identically to Twig’s core min (opens new window) function.

# ol

Outputs an array of items as an ordered list.

{% set titles = craft.entries()
  .section('news')
  .select('title')
  .column() %}
{{ ol(titles) }}
{# Output:
<ol>
  <li>Shocking Foo</li>
  <li>You Won’t Believe This Bar</li>
  <li>Ten Baz You Can’t Live Without</li>
</ol>
#}

# Arguments

The ol() function has the following arguments:

  • items – An array of items to be wrapped in <li>s. These will be HTML-encoded by default.
  • params – An attributes argument where each key+value will be set as attributes on the <ol>, with the exception of two special options:
    • encode: false – Prevents the list items from being HTML-encoded.
    • itemOptions: {...} – Tag attributes to be applied to each of the <li>s.

# parseEnv

Checks if a string references an environment variable ($VARIABLE_NAME) and/or an alias (@aliasName), and returns the referenced value.

# plugin

Returns a plugin instance by its handle, or null if no plugin is installed and enabled with that handle.

{{ plugin('commerce').version }}

# raw

Wraps the given string in a Twig\Markup object to prevent it from getting HTML-encoded when output.

{% set html = raw('<p>Don’t encode me.</p>') %}
{{ html }}

This works similarly to the raw (opens new window) filter, except that Twig will remember not to escape the HTML even if the variable is passed to another template/macro, whereas |raw filters only have an effect if used directly in an output tag.

# redirectInput

Shortcut for typing <input type="hidden" name="redirect" value="{{ url|hash }}">.

{{ redirectInput(url) }}

You can optionally set additional attributes on the tag by passing an options argument.

{{ redirectInput(url, {
  id: 'redirect-input'
}) }}

# seq

Outputs the next or current number in a sequence, defined by name:

<p>This entry has been read {{ seq('hits:' ~ entry.id) }} times.</p>

Each time the function is called, the given sequence will be automatically incremented.

You can optionally have the number be zero-padded to a certain length.

{{ now|date('Y') ~ '-' ~ seq('orderNumber:' ~ now|date('Y'), 5) }}
{# Output: 2018-00001 #}

To view the current number in the sequence without incrementing it, set the next argument to false.

<h5><a href="{{ entry.url }}">{{ entry.title }}</a></h5>
<p>{{ seq('hits:' ~ entry.id, next=false) }} views</p>

# shuffle

Randomizes the order of the elements within an array.

{% set promos = craft.entries.section('promos').all() %}
{% set shuffledPromos = shuffle(promos) %}

{% for promo in shuffledPromos %}
  <div class="promo {{ promo.slug }}">
    <h3>{{ promo.title }}</h3>
    <p>{{ promo.description }}</p>
    <a class="cta" href="{{ promo.ctaUrl }}">{{ promo.ctaLabel }}</a>
  </div>
{% endfor %}

# siteUrl

Similar to url(), except only for creating URLs to pages on your site.

<a href="{{ siteUrl('company/contact') }}">Contact Us</a>

# Arguments

The siteUrl() function has the following arguments:

  • path – The path that the resulting URL should point to on your site. It will be appended to your base site URL.
  • params – Any query string parameters that should be appended to the URL. This can be either a string (e.g. 'foo=1&bar=2') or a hash (e.g. {foo:'1', bar:'2'}).
  • scheme – Which scheme the URL should use ('http' or 'https'). The default value depends on whether the current request is served over SSL or not. If not, then the scheme in your Site URL will be used; if so, then https will be used.
  • siteId – The ID of the site that the URL should point to. By default the current site will be used.

# successMessageInput

Shortcut for typing <input type="hidden" name="successMessage" value="{{ 'Custom success message'|hash }}">.

{{ successMessageInput('Custom success message') }}

You can optionally set additional attributes on the tag by passing an options argument.

{{ successMessageInput('Custom success message', {
  id: 'success-message-input'
}) }}

# svg

Outputs an SVG document.

You can pass the following things into it:

  • An SVG file path.

    {{ svg('@webroot/icons/lemon.svg') }}
    
  • A craft\elements\Asset (opens new window) object, such as one pulled in from an Assets field.

    {% set image = entry.myAssetsField.one() %}
    {% if image and image.extension == 'svg' %}
      {{ svg(image) }}
    {% endif %}
    
  • Raw SVG markup.

    {% set image = include('_includes/icons/lemon.svg') %}
    {{ svg(image) }}
    

By default, if you pass an asset or raw markup into the function, the SVG will be sanitized of potentially malicious scripts using svg-sanitizer (opens new window), and any IDs or class names within the document will be namespaced so they don’t conflict with other IDs or class names in the DOM. You can disable those behaviors using the sanitize and namespace arguments:

{{ svg(image, sanitize=false, namespace=false) }}

You can also specify a custom class name that should be added to the root <svg> node using the attr filter:

{{ svg('@webroot/icons/lemon.svg')|attr({ class: 'lemon-icon' }) }}

# source

Returns the content of a template without rendering it.

This works identically to Twig’s core source (opens new window) function.

# tag

Renders a complete HTML tag.

{{ tag('div', {
  class: 'foo'
}) }}
{# Output: <div class="foo"></div> #}

If text is included in the attributes argument, its value will be HTML-encoded and set as the text contents of the tag.

{{ tag('div', {
  text: 'Hello'
}) }}
{# Output: <div>Hello</div> #}

If html is included in the attributes argument (and text isn’t), its value will be set as the inner HTML of the tag (without getting HTML-encoded).

Be sure you trust any input you provide via html since it could be an XSS (cross-site scripting) attack vector. It’s safer to use text wherever possible.

{{ tag('div', {
  html: 'Hello<br>world'
}) }}
{# Output: <div>Hello<br>world</div> #}

All other keys passed to the second argument will be set as attributes on the tag, using yii\helpers\BaseHtml::renderTagAttributes() (opens new window).

If an attribute is set to true, it will be added without a value.

{{ tag('input', {
  id: "foo",
  name: "bar",
  required: true
}) }}
{# Output: <input id="foo" name="bar" required> #}

Any attribute set to null or false will be omitted.

# ul

Outputs an array of items as an unordered list.

{% set titles = craft.entries()
  .section('news')
  .select('title')
  .column() %}
{{ ul(titles) }}
{# Output:
<ul>
  <li>Shocking Foo</li>
  <li>You Won’t Believe This Bar</li>
  <li>Ten Baz You Can’t Live Without</li>
</ul>
#}

# Arguments

The ul() function has the following arguments:

  • items – An array of items to be wrapped in <li>s. These will be HTML-encoded by default.
  • params – An attributes argument where each key+value will be set as attributes on the <ul>, with the exception of two special options:
    • encode: false – Prevents the list items from being HTML-encoded.
    • itemOptions: {...} – Tag attributes to be applied to each of the <li>s.

# url

Returns a URL.

<a href="{{ url('company/contact') }}">Contact Us</a>

# Arguments

The url() function has the following arguments:

  • path – The path that the resulting URL should point to on your site. It will be appended to your base site URL.
  • params – Any query string parameters that should be appended to the URL. This can be either a string (e.g. 'foo=1&bar=2') or a hash (e.g. {foo:'1', bar:'2'}).
  • scheme – Which scheme the URL should use ('http' or 'https'). The default value depends on whether the current request is served over SSL or not. If not, then the scheme in your Site URL will be used; if so, then https will be used.
  • mustShowScriptName – If this is set to true, then the URL returned will include “index.php”, disregarding the omitScriptNameInUrls config setting. (This can be useful if the URL will be used by POST requests over Ajax, where the URL will not be shown in the browser’s address bar, and you want to avoid a possible collision with your site’s .htaccess file redirect.)

Using the url() function has advantages over hard-coding URLs in your templates:

  • Generated URLs will encourage consistency by respecting settings like addTrailingSlashesToUrls.
  • Your site will be more portable, making it easier to do something like move to a new domain or subdomain.
  • If the page has a token URL parameter, that token will automatically get appended to generated URLs to maintain preview context navigating around the site.

You can use the url() function for appending query string parameters and/or enforcing a scheme on an absolute URL:

{{ url('http://my-project.com', 'foo=1', 'https') }}
{# Output: "https://my-project.com?foo=1" #}