Upgrading from Craft 2

The first step to upgrading your site to Craft 3 is updating the CMS itself.

# Preparing for the Upgrade

Before you begin, make sure that:

  • you’ve reviewed the changes in Craft 3 further down this page
  • your server meets Craft 3’s minimum requirements (Craft 3 requires PHP 7+ and at least 256 MB of memory allocated to PHP)
  • your site is running at least Craft 2.6.2788
  • your plugins are all up-to-date, and you’ve verified that they’ve been updated for Craft 3 (you can see a report of your plugins’ Craft 3 compatibility status from the Updates page in the Craft 2 control panel)
  • your database is backed up in case everything goes horribly wrong

Once you've completed everything listed above you can continue with the upgrade process.

# Performing the Upgrade

The best way to upgrade a Craft 2 site is to approach it like you’re building a new Craft 3 site. So to begin, create a new directory alongside your current project, and follow steps 1-3 in the installation instructions.

With Craft 3 downloaded and prepped, follow these steps to complete the upgrade:

  1. Configure the .env file in your new project with your database connection settings from your old craft/config/db.php file.

    Don’t forget to set DB_TABLE_PREFIX="craft" if that’s what your database tables are prefixed with.

  2. Copy any settings from your old craft/config/general.php file into your new project’s config/general.php file.

  3. Copy your old craft/config/license.key file into your new project’s config/ folder.

  4. Copy your old custom Redactor config files from craft/config/redactor/ over to your new project’s config/redactor/ directory.

  5. Copy your old custom login page logo and site icon files from craft/storage/rebrand/ over to your new project’s storage/rebrand/ directory.

  6. Copy your old user photos from craft/storage/userphotos/ over to your new project’s storage/userphotos/ directory.

  7. Copy your old templates from craft/templates/ over to your new project’s templates/ directory.

  8. If you had made any changes to your public/index.php file, copy them to your new project’s web/index.php file.

  9. Copy any other files in your old public/ directory into your new project’s web/ directory.

  10. Update your web server to point to your new project’s web/ directory.

  11. Point your browser to your control panel URL (e.g. http://my-project.test/admin). If you see the update prompt, you did everything right! Go ahead and click “Finish up” to update your database.

  12. If you had any plugins installed, you’ll need to install their Craft 3 counterparts from the “Plugin Store” section in the control panel. (See the plugins’ documentation for any additional upgrade instructions.)

Now that you’ve upgraded your install to use Craft 3, please take some time to review the changes on this page and update your project to follow the changes in Craft 3.

# Troubleshooting

# I get the Craft installer when I access my control panel.

If this happens, it’s because your database connection settings in the .env file don’t quite match up to what they used to be. Most likely you forgot to set the correct DB_TABLE_PREFIX.

# I’m getting a “Setting unknown property: craft\config\DbConfig::initSQLs” error.

The initSQLs database config setting was removed in Craft 3, as it was generally only used to fix MySQL 5.7 support in Craft 2, which isn’t necessary in Craft 3. Just open your config/db.php file and delete the line that begins with 'initSQLs'.

# Rich Text Fields

The “Rich Text” field type has been removed from Craft 3, in favor of new Redactor and CKEditor plugins.

If you have any existing Rich Text fields, they will be automatically converted to Redactor fields when you install the Redactor plugin.

# Redactor Configs

If you do install the Redactor plugin, you will need to ensure that your Redactor configs in config/redactor/ are valid JSON. That means:

  • No comments
  • All object properties (the config setting names) must be wrapped in double quotes
  • All strings must use double quotes rather than single quotes
// Bad:
  /* interesting comment */
  buttons: ['bold', 'italic']

// Good:
  "buttons": ["bold", "italic"]

# Position Select Fields

The “Position Select” field type has been removed from Craft 3. If you had any Position Select fields, they will be converted to Dropdown fields, with all the same options.

If you miss Position Select, you can try installing the Position Fieldtype plugin, which brings it back.

# Lightswitch Fields

Lightswitch field values are now always true or false. If you’re accessing a Lightswitch field value for an element that doesn’t have an explicit value set yet, the field’s default value will be returned instead.

# Remote Volumes

Support for Amazon S3, Rackspace Cloud Files, and Google Cloud Storage have been moved into plugins. If you have any asset volumes that were using those services in Craft 2, you will need to install the new plugins:

# Configuration

# Config Settings

Some general config settings have been renamed in Craft 3. The old setting names have been deprecated, but will continue to work until Craft 4.

Old Setting New Setting
activateAccountFailurePath invalidUserTokenPath
backupDbOnUpdate backupOnUpdate1
defaultFilePermissions defaultFileMode2
defaultFolderPermissions defaultDirMode
environmentVariables aliases 3
restoreDbOnUpdateFailure restoreOnUpdateFailure
useWriteFileLock useFileLocks
validationKey securityKey4

1 Performance should no longer be a major factor when setting backupOnUpdate to false, since backups aren’t generated by PHP anymore.

2 defaultFileMode is now null by default, meaning it will be determined by the current environment.

*3 Settings that supported values defined by your environmentVariables config setting in Craft 2 can now be set to system environment variables and aliases in Craft 3. (See Environmental Configuration to learn more about those.) Site URL and Local volume settings will automatically be converted to the new @alias/sub/path syntax when updating to Craft 3.

4 securityKey is no longer optional. If you haven’t set it yet, set it to the value in storage/runtime/validation.key (if the file exists). The auto-generated validation.key file fallback will be removed in Craft 4.

Some config settings have been removed entirely:

File Setting
db.php collation
db.php initSQLs
general.php appId
general.php cacheMethod (see Configuration → Data Caching Config)

# omitScriptNameInUrls and usePathInfo

The omitScriptNameInUrls setting can no longer be set to 'auto', as it was by default in Craft 2. Which means you will need to explicitly set it to true in config/general.php if you’ve configured your server to route HTTP requests to index.php.

Similarly, the usePathInfo setting can no longer be set to 'auto' either. If your server is configured to support PATH_INFO, you can set this to true. This is only necessary if you can’t set omitScriptNameInUrls to true, though.

# URL Rules

If you have any URL rules saved in config/routes.php, you will need to update them to Yii 2’s pattern-route syntax.

  • Named parameters in the pattern should be defined using the format (<ParamName:RegExp>) rather than as a regular expression subpattern ((?P<ParamName>RegExp)).
  • Unnamed parameters are no longer allowed (e.g. ([^\/]+)). They must also be converted to the new named parameter syntax (<ParamName:RegExp>).
  • Controller action routes should be defined as a string ('action/path') rather than an array with an action key (['action' => 'action/path']).
  • Template routes should be defined as an array with a template key (['template' => 'template/path']) rather than a string ('template/path').
// Old:
'dashboard' => ['action' => 'dashboard/index'],
'settings/fields/new' => 'settings/fields/_edit',
'settings/fields/edit/(?P<fieldId>\d+)' => 'settings/fields/_edit',
'blog/type/([^\/]+)' => 'blog/_type',

// New:
'dashboard' => 'dashboard/index',
'settings/fields/new' => ['template' => 'settings/fields/_edit'],
'settings/fields/edit/<fieldId:\d+>' => ['template' => 'settings/fields/_edit'],
'blog/type/<type:[^\/]+>' => ['template' => 'blog/_type'],

# PHP Constants

Some PHP constants have been deprecated in Craft 3, and will no longer work in Craft 4:

Old PHP Constant What to do instead
CRAFT_SITE_URL Use the siteUrl config setting or environment variables

1 Craft 3 doesn’t require each site/locale to have its own index.php file anymore, so alternatively you can remove all unnecessary site/locale web roots and subfolders. See the Localization guide for more info.

# Static Translation Files

Craft 3 still supports static message translations, but the directory structure has changed. Now within your translations/ folder, you should create subdirectories for each locale, and within them, PHP files for each translation category.

The acceptable translation categories are:

Category Description
app Craft’s translation messages
yii Yii’s translation messages
site custom site-specific translation messages
plugin-handle Plugins’ translation messages

In Craft 3, your translations/ folder might look something like this:

└── de
    ├── app.php
    └── site.php

# User Photos

User photos are stored as assets now. When upgrading to Craft 3, Craft will automatically create a new asset volume called “User Photos” at storage/userphotos/ (where Craft previously stored all user photos, but without the <Username>/ subfolders). However this folder is above your web root and inaccessible to HTTP requests, so until you make this volume publicly accessible, user photos will not work on the front end.

Here’s how you can resolve this:

  1. Move the storage/userphotos/ folder somewhere below your web root (e.g. web/userphotos/)
  2. Go to Settings → Assets → Volumes → User Photos and configure the volume based on the new folder location:
    • Update the File System Path setting to point to the new folder location
    • Enable the “Assets in this volume have public URLs” setting
    • Set the correct URL setting for the folder
    • Save the volume

# Twig 2

Craft 3 uses Twig 2, which has its own breaking changes for templates:

# Macros

Twig 2 requires that you explicitly import macros in each template where you are using them. They are no longer automatically available if a parent template is including them, or even if they were defined in the same template file.

{% macro foo %}...{% endmacro %}
{{ _self.foo() }}

{% macro foo %}...{% endmacro %}
{% import _self as macros %}
{{ macros.foo() }}

# Undefined Blocks

Twig 1 let you call block() even for blocks that didn’t exist:

{% if block('foo') is not empty %}
    {{ block('foo') }}
{% endif %}

Twig 2 will throw an error unless it’s a defined test:

{% if block('foo') is defined %}
    {{ block('foo') }}
{% endif %}

# Template Tags

The {% paginate %} tag no longer has an {% endpaginate %} closing tag, so remove any instances of that.

Some Twig template tags have been deprecated in Craft 3, and will be completely removed in Craft 4:

Old Tag What to do instead
{% includeCss %} Use the {% css %} tag
{% includeHiResCss %} Use the {% css %} tag and write your own media selector
{% includeJs %} Use the {% js %} tag
{% includeCssFile url %} {% do view.registerCssFile(url) %}
{% includeJsFile url %} {% do view.registerJsFile(url) %}
{% includeCssResource path %} Use an asset bundle
{% includeJsResource path %} Use an asset bundle

# Template Functions

Some template functions have been removed completely:

Old Template Function What to do instead
craft.hasPackage() (n/a)
craft.entryRevisions.getDraftByOffset() (n/a)
craft.entryRevisions.getVersionByOffset() (n/a)
craft.fields.getFieldType(type) craft.app.fields.createField(type)
craft.fields.populateFieldType() (n/a)
craft.tasks.areTasksPending() craft.app.queue.getHasWaitingJobs()1
craft.tasks.getRunningTask() (n/a)
craft.tasks.getTotalTasks() (n/a)
craft.tasks.haveTasksFailed() (n/a)
craft.tasks.isTaskRunning() craft.app.queue.getHasReservedJobs()1

1 Only available if the queue component implements craft\queue\QueueInterface.

Some template functions have been deprecated in Craft 3, and will be completely removed in Craft 4:

Old Template Function What to do instead
round(num) num|round
getCsrfInput() csrfInput()
getHeadHtml() head()
getFootHtml() endBody()
getTranslations() view.getTranslations()|json_encode|raw
craft.categoryGroups.getAllGroupIds() craft.app.categories.allGroupIds
craft.categoryGroups.getEditableGroupIds() craft.app.categories.editableGroupIds
craft.categoryGroups.getAllGroups() craft.app.categories.allGroups
craft.categoryGroups.getEditableGroups() craft.app.categories.editableGroups
craft.categoryGroups.getTotalGroups() craft.app.categories.totalGroups
craft.categoryGroups.getGroupById(id) craft.app.categories.getGroupById(id)
craft.categoryGroups.getGroupByHandle(handle) craft.app.categories.getGroupByHandle(handle)
craft.config.[setting] (magic getter) craft.app.config.general.[setting]
craft.config.get(setting) craft.app.config.general.[setting]
craft.config.usePathInfo() craft.app.config.general.usePathInfo
craft.config.omitScriptNameInUrls() craft.app.config.general.omitScriptNameInUrls
craft.config.getResourceTrigger() craft.app.config.general.resourceTrigger
craft.locale() craft.app.language
craft.isLocalized() craft.app.isMultiSite
craft.deprecator.getTotalLogs() craft.app.deprecator.totalLogs
craft.elementIndexes.getSources() craft.app.elementIndexes.sources
craft.emailMessages.getAllMessages() craft.emailMessages.allMessages
craft.emailMessages.getMessage(key) craft.app.emailMessages.getMessage(key)
craft.entryRevisions.getDraftsByEntryId(id) craft.app.entryRevisions.getDraftsByEntryId(id)
craft.entryRevisions.getEditableDraftsByEntryId(id) craft.entryRevisions.getEditableDraftsByEntryId(id)
craft.entryRevisions.getDraftById(id) craft.app.entryRevisions.getDraftById(id)
craft.entryRevisions.getVersionsByEntryId(id) craft.app.entryRevisions.getVersionsByEntryId(id)
craft.entryRevisions.getVersionById(id) craft.app.entryRevisions.getVersionById(id)
craft.feeds.getFeedItems(url) craft.app.feeds.getFeedItems(url)
craft.fields.getAllGroups() craft.app.fields.allGroups
craft.fields.getGroupById(id) craft.app.fields.getGroupById(id)
craft.fields.getFieldById(id) craft.app.fields.getFieldById(id)
craft.fields.getFieldByHandle(handle) craft.app.fields.getFieldByHandle(handle)
craft.fields.getAllFields() craft.app.fields.allFields
craft.fields.getFieldsByGroupId(id) craft.app.fields.getFieldsByGroupId(id)
craft.fields.getLayoutById(id) craft.app.fields.getLayoutById(id)
craft.fields.getLayoutByType(type) craft.app.fields.getLayoutByType(type)
craft.fields.getAllFieldTypes() craft.app.fields.allFieldTypes
craft.globals.getAllSets() craft.app.globals.allSets
craft.globals.getEditableSets() craft.app.globals.editableSets
craft.globals.getTotalSets() craft.app.globals.totalSets
craft.globals.getTotalEditableSets() craft.app.globals.totalEditableSets
craft.globals.getSetById(id) craft.app.globals.getSetById(id)
craft.globals.getSetByHandle(handle) craft.app.globals.getSetByHandle(handle)
craft.i18n.getAllLocales() craft.app.i18n.allLocales
craft.i18n.getAppLocales() craft.app.i18n.appLocales
craft.i18n.getCurrentLocale() craft.app.locale
craft.i18n.getLocaleById(id) craft.app.i18n.getLocaleById(id)
craft.i18n.getSiteLocales() craft.app.i18n.siteLocales
craft.i18n.getSiteLocaleIds() craft.app.i18n.siteLocaleIds
craft.i18n.getPrimarySiteLocale() craft.app.i18n.primarySiteLocale
craft.i18n.getEditableLocales() craft.app.i18n.editableLocales
craft.i18n.getEditableLocaleIds() craft.app.i18n.editableLocaleIds
craft.i18n.getLocaleData() craft.app.i18n.getLocaleById(id)
craft.i18n.getDatepickerJsFormat() craft.app.locale.getDateFormat('short', 'jui')
craft.i18n.getTimepickerJsFormat() craft.app.locale.getTimeFormat('short', 'php')
craft.request.isGet() craft.app.request.isGet
craft.request.isPost() craft.app.request.isPost
craft.request.isDelete() craft.app.request.isDelete
craft.request.isPut() craft.app.request.isPut
craft.request.isAjax() craft.app.request.isAjax
craft.request.isSecure() craft.app.request.isSecureConnection
craft.request.isLivePreview() craft.app.request.isLivePreview1
craft.request.getScriptName() craft.app.request.scriptFilename
craft.request.getPath() craft.app.request.pathInfo
craft.request.getUrl() url(craft.app.request.pathInfo)
craft.request.getSegments() craft.app.request.segments
craft.request.getSegment(num) craft.app.request.getSegment(num)
craft.request.getFirstSegment() craft.app.request.segments|first
craft.request.getLastSegment() craft.app.request.segments|last
craft.request.getParam(name) craft.app.request.getParam(name)
craft.request.getQuery(name) craft.app.request.getQueryParam(name)
craft.request.getPost(name) craft.app.request.getBodyParam(name)
craft.request.getCookie(name) craft.app.request.cookies.get(name)
craft.request.getServerName() craft.app.request.serverName
craft.request.getUrlFormat() craft.app.config.general.usePathInfo
craft.request.isMobileBrowser() craft.app.request.isMobileBrowser()
craft.request.getPageNum() craft.app.request.pageNum
craft.request.getHostInfo() craft.app.request.hostInfo
craft.request.getScriptUrl() craft.app.request.scriptUrl
craft.request.getPathInfo() craft.app.request.getPathInfo(true)
craft.request.getRequestUri() craft.app.request.url
craft.request.getServerPort() craft.app.request.serverPort
craft.request.getUrlReferrer() craft.app.request.referrer
craft.request.getUserAgent() craft.app.request.userAgent
craft.request.getUserHostAddress() craft.app.request.userIP
craft.request.getUserHost() craft.app.request.userHost
craft.request.getPort() craft.app.request.port
craft.request.getCsrfToken() craft.app.request.csrfToken
craft.request.getQueryString() craft.app.request.queryString
craft.request.getQueryStringWithoutPath() craft.app.request.queryStringWithoutPath
craft.request.getIpAddress() craft.app.request.userIP
craft.request.getClientOs() craft.app.request.clientOs
craft.sections.getAllSections() craft.app.sections.allSections
craft.sections.getEditableSections() craft.app.sections.editableSections
craft.sections.getTotalSections() craft.app.sections.totalSections
craft.sections.getTotalEditableSections() craft.app.sections.totalEditableSections
craft.sections.getSectionById(id) craft.app.sections.getSectionById(id)
craft.sections.getSectionByHandle(handle) craft.app.sections.getSectionByHandle(handle)
craft.systemSettings.[category] (magic getter) craft.app.systemSettings.getSettings('category')
craft.userGroups.getAllGroups() craft.app.userGroups.allGroups
craft.userGroups.getGroupById(id) craft.app.userGroups.getGroupById(id)
craft.userGroups.getGroupByHandle(handle) craft.app.userGroups.getGroupByHandle(handle)
craft.userPermissions.getAllPermissions() craft.app.userPermissions.allPermissions
craft.userPermissions.getGroupPermissionsByUserId(id) craft.app.userPermissions.getGroupPermissionsByUserId(id)
craft.session.isLoggedIn() not craft.app.user.isGuest
craft.session.getUser() currentUser
craft.session.getRemainingSessionTime() craft.app.user.remainingSessionTime
craft.session.getRememberedUsername() craft.app.user.rememberedUsername
craft.session.getReturnUrl() craft.app.user.getReturnUrl()
craft.session.getFlashes() craft.app.session.getAllFlashes()
craft.session.getFlash() craft.app.session.getFlash()
craft.session.hasFlash() craft.app.session.hasFlash()

1 craft.app.request.isLivePreview is also deprecated, and only will return true when previewing categories or plugin-supplied element types that don’t support the new previewing system. If you were calling this to work around Craft templating bugs in Live Preview requests, you can simply delete the condition now, and treat Live Preview requests the same as any other request type.

# Date Formatting

Craft’s extended DateTime class has been removed in Craft 3. Here’s a list of things you used to be able to do in your templates, and what the Craft 3 equivalent is. (The DateTime object is represented by the d variable. In reality it could be entry.postDate, now, etc.)

Old New
{{ d }} (treated as a string) {{ d|date('Y-m-d') }}
{{ d.atom() }} {{ d|atom }}
{{ d.cookie() }} {{ d|date('l, d-M-y H:i:s T')}}
{{ d.day() }} {{ d|date('j') }}
{{ d.iso8601() }} {{ d|date('c') }}
{{ d.localeDate() }} {{ d|date('short') }}
{{ d.localeTime() }} {{ d|time('short') }}
{{ d.month() }} {{ d|date('n') }}
{{ d.mySqlDateTime() }} {{ d|date('Y-m-d H:i:s') }}
{{ d.nice() }} {{ d|datetime('short') }}
{{ d.rfc1036() }} {{ d|date('D, d M y H:i:s O') }}
{{ d.rfc1123() }} {{ d|date('r') }}
{{ d.rfc2822() }} {{ d|date('r') }}
{{ d.rfc3339() }} {{ d|date('Y-m-d\\TH:i:sP') }}
{{ d.rfc822() }} {{ d|date('D, d M y H:i:s O') }}
{{ d.rfc850() }} {{ d|date('l, d-M-y H:i:s T') }}
{{ d.rss() }} {{ d|rss }}
{{ d.uiTimestamp() }} {{ d|timestamp('short') }}
{{ d.w3c() }} {{ d|date('Y-m-d\\TH:i:sP') }}
{{ d.w3cDate() }} {{ d|date('Y-m-d') }}
{{ d.year() }} {{ d|date('Y') }}

# Currency Formatting

The |currency filter now maps to craft\i18n\Formatter::asCurrency(). It still works the same, but the stripZeroCents argument has been renamed to stripZeros, and pushed back a couple notches, so you will need to update your templates if you were setting that argument.

{{ num|currency('USD', true) }}
{{ num|currency('USD', stripZeroCents = true) }}

{{ num|currency('USD', stripZeros = true) }}

# Element Queries

# Query Params

Some element query params have been removed:

Element Type Old Param What to do instead
All of them childOf Use a relatedTo param with a sourceElement key
All of them childField Use a relatedTo param with a field key
All of them parentOf Use a relatedTo param with a targetElement key
All of them parentField Use a relatedTo param with a field key
All of them depth Use the level param
Tag name Use the title param
Tag setId Use the groupId param
Tag set Use the group param
Tag orderBy:"name" Set the orderBy param to 'title'

Some element query params have been renamed in Craft 3. The old params have been deprecated, but will continue to work until Craft 4.

Element Type Old Param New Param
All of them order orderBy
All of them locale siteId or site
All of them localeEnabled enabledForSite
All of them relatedTo.sourceLocale relatedTo.sourceSite
Asset source volume
Asset sourceId volumeId
Matrix Block ownerLocale site or siteId

# limit Param

The limit param is now set to null (no limit) by default, rather than 100.

# Setting Params to Arrays

If you want to set a param value to an array, you now must type out the array brackets.

{% set query = craft.entries()
    .relatedTo('and', 1, 2, 3) %}

{% set query = craft.entries()
    .relatedTo(['and', 1, 2, 3]) %}

# Cloning Element Queries

In Craft 2, each time you call a parameter-setter method (e.g. .type('article')), the method would:

  1. clone the ElementCriteriaModel object
  2. set the parameter value on the cloned object
  3. return the cloned object

That made it possible to execute variations of an element query, without affecting subsequent queries. For example:

{% set query = craft.entries.section('news') %}
{% set articleEntries = query.type('article').find() %}
{% set totalEntries = query.total() %}

Here .type() is applying the type parameter to a clone of query, so it had no effect on query.total(), which will still return the total number of News entries, regardless of their entry types.

This behavior has changed in Craft 3, though. Now any time you call a parameter-setter method, the method will:

  1. set the parameter value on the current element query
  2. return the element query

Which means in the above code example, totalEntries will be set to the total Article entries, as the type parameter will still be applied.

If you have any templates that count on the Craft 2 behavior, you can fix them using the clone() function.

{% set query = craft.entries.section('news') %}
{% set articleEntries = clone(query).type('article').all() %}
{% set totalEntries = query.count() %}

# Query Methods

The findElementAtOffset() element query method has been removed in Craft 3. Use nth() instead.

Some element query methods have been renamed in Craft 3. The old methods have been deprecated, but will continue to work until Craft 4.

Old Method New Method
ids(criteria) ids() (setting criteria params here is now deprecated)
find() all()
first() one()
last() inReverse().one() (see last())
total() count()

# Treating Queries as Arrays

Support for treating element queries as if they’re arrays has been deprecated in Craft 3, and will be completely removed in Craft 4.

When you need to loop over an element query, you should start explicitly calling .all(), which will execute the database query and return the array of results:

{% for entry in craft.entries.section('news') %}...{% endfor %}
{% for asset in entry.myAssetsField %}...{% endfor %}

{% for entry in craft.entries.section('news').all() %}...{% endfor %}
{% for asset in entry.myAssetsField.all() %}...{% endfor %}

When you need to get the total number of results from an element query, you should call the .count() method:

{% set total = craft.entries.section('news')|length %}

{% set total = craft.entries.section('news').count() %}

Alternatively, if you already needed to fetch the actual query results, and you didn’t set the offset or limit params, you can use the length filter to find the total size of the results array without the need for an extra database query.

{% set entries = craft.entries()
    .all() %}
{% set total = entries|length %}

# last()

last() was deprecated in Craft 3 because it isn’t clear that it needs to run two database queries behind the scenes (the equivalent of query.nth(query.count() - 1)).

In most cases you can replace calls to .last() with .inReverse().one() and get the same result, without the extra database query. (inReverse() will reverse the sort direction of all of the ORDER BY columns in the generated SQL.)

{# Channel entries are ordered by `postDate DESC` by default, so this will swap
   it to `postDate ASC`, returning the oldest News entry: #}

{% set oldest = craft.entries()
    .one() %}

There are two cases where inReverse() won’t work as expected, though:

  • when there is no ORDER BY clause in the SQL, therefore nothing to reverse
  • when the orderBy param contains a yii\db\Expression object

In those cases, you can just replace the .last() call with what it’s already doing internally:

{% set query = craft.entries()
    .section('news') %}
{% set total = query.count() %}
{% set last = query.nth(total - 1) %}

# Elements

Tag elements no longer have a name property. Use title instead.

All elements’ locale properties have been deprecated, and will be completely removed in Craft 4. Use siteId if you need to know an element’s site ID, site.handle if you need to know its handle, or site.language if you need to know its site’s language.

# Models

Models’ getError('attribute') methods have been deprecated, and will be completely removed in Craft 4. Use getFirstError('attribute') instead.

# Locales

Some locale methods have been deprecated in Craft 3, and will be completely removed in Craft 4:

Old Method What to do instead
getId() id
getName() getDisplayName(craft.app.language)
getNativeName() getDisplayName()

# Request Params

Your front-end <form>s and JS scripts that submit to a controller action will need to be updated with the following changes.

# action Params

action params must be rewritten in kebab-case rather than camelCase.

<input type="hidden" name="action" value="entries/saveEntry">

<input type="hidden" name="action" value="entries/save-entry">

Some controller actions have been renamed:

Old Controller Action New Controller Action
categories/createCategory categories/save-category
users/validate users/verify-email
users/saveProfile users/save-user
users/forgotPassword users/send-password-reset-email

# redirect Params

redirect params must be hashed now.

<input type="hidden" name="redirect" value="foo/bar">

<input type="hidden" name="redirect" value="{{ 'foo/bar'|hash }}">

The redirectInput() function is provided as a shortcut.

{{ redirectInput('foo/bar') }}

Some redirect param tokens have been renamed:

Controller Action Old Token New Token
entries/save-entry {entryId} {id}
entry-revisions/save-draft {entryId} {id}
entry-revisions/publish-draft {entryId} {id}
fields/save-field {fieldId} {id}
globals/save-set {setId} {id}
sections/save-section {sectionId} {id}
users/save-user {userId} {id}

# CSRF Token Params

CSRF protection is enabled by default in Craft 3. If you didn’t already have it enabled (via the enableCsrfProtection config setting), each of your front-end <form>s and JS scripts that submit to a controller action will need to be updated with a new CSRF token param.

{% set csrfParam = craft.app.request.csrfParam %}
{% set csrfToken = craft.app.request.csrfToken %}
<input type="hidden" name="{{ csrfParam }}" value="{{ csrfToken }}">

The csrfInput() function is provided as a shortcut.

{{ csrfInput() }}

# Plugins

See Updating Plugins for Craft 3.