Entries

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Entries are flexible content containers that—unlike addresses, assets, or categories—have no primary or implied function. They are entirely agnostic building blocks, used to model whatever kind of content or data your project needs.

All entries support some key features like Authors, a Post Date and Expiration Date, Statuses, and content defined via field layouts. Additional features and properties are determined via entry types, or the sections and Matrix fields they’re used in.

Authors can use the drafts and revisions system to stage different versions of content and preview it before going live.

# Entry Types

Craft uses entry types to define atomic units of content, which are then exposed to editors via sections and Matrix fields.

Entry types became a global resource in Craft 5. This means you can define a content type once, then use it in multiple sections, as a nested block in a Matrix field, or some combination of the two. As a result, some settings have moved around!

Most importantly, you’ll manage entry types in the SettingsEntry Types screen—or create them on-the-fly when working on a section or Matrix field.

my-craft-project.ddev.site/admin/settings/sections/1/entry-types/1
Screenshot of entry type settings
Editing an entry type in the control panel.

Entry types have the following settings:

  • Name — Used throughout the control panel as a UI label.
  • Handle — Uniquely identifies entries of this type in templates and queries.
  • Icon and Color — Choose a symbol and color to subtly distinguish entries of this type throughout the control panel.
  • Show the Title field — Entry titles can be set by the author or dynamically defined from other properties via an object template.
    • Title Translation Method — In multi-site projects, choose how titles are localized.
  • Show the Slug field — As with titles, slugs can be manually or automatically generated.
    • Slug Translation Method — In multi-site projects, choose how slugs are localized.
  • Show the Status field — Manually set each entry’s status, or allow it to be dictated by its usage.
  • Field Layout — Add and arrange custom fields to suit your content model.

# Dynamic Entry Titles

If you want your entries’ titles to be auto-generated from a template (rather than requiring authors to enter them manually), you can uncheck the Show the Title field? checkbox. When you do, a new Title Format setting will appear.

The Title Format is an object template (just like the Entry URI Format and preview target URL Format we looked, above), and gets evaluated whenever entries with this type are saved.

# Translation Settings

Most localization behavior is determined by section and field settings, but the translation of titles and slugs is governed by entry types.

The available translation methods are covered in the custom fields documentation.

# Sections

Sections organize and expose entry types for content authors. In each Section you can define the following:

  • Whether entries in the section have URLs;
  • What the entries’ URLs should look like;
  • Which template should get loaded if an entry’s URL is requested;
  • What entry types are available in the section;
  • How many authors can be associated with each entry;

If your project has multiple sites, your Section can define these additional settings:

  • Which sites entries in the section should target;
  • Which sites are enabled by default when creating new entries;

To create a new section, go to SettingsSections and choose New Section.

# Section Types

Craft has three different types of sections:

# Singles

Illustration of Entries layout with “Singles” selected, showing “About Us”, “Contact” and “Home” entries

Singles are used for one-off pages or content objects that have unique requirements, such as…

  • …a website’s homepage;
  • …an About Us page;
  • …a Contact Us page;

Unlike the other section types, singles only ever have one entry associated with them, meaning their URIs can be static (like contact-us) rather than templatized (like news/{slug}).

Singles have all the functionality of globals, and can even be pre-loaded into global Twig variables with the preloadSingles config setting. As such, singles don’t have an editable Author, Post Date, or Expiration Date.

A single’s Status controls can be hidden with the Show the Status field setting in its selected Entry Type.

# Channels

Illustration of Entries layout with a “Press Releases” channel selected, showing three dated news entries

Channels are used for lists or streams of similar content, such as…

  • …posts on a blog;
  • …articles in a knowledge base;
  • …recipes;
  • …reviews;

Entries in channels are intended to be queried and displayed ordered by one or more of their attributes or custom fields. Channels are also a simple way to maintain a flat taxonomy, standing in for tags or categories.

# Structures

Structures are an extension of channels that support explicit, hierarchical organization.

Illustration of Entries layout with a “Galleries” structure selected, showing nested building and gallery entries with drag-and-drop handles

Unlike other section types, structure sections expose a Structure view option on their element indexes:

Illustration of an element index’s “View” options with “Structure” selected.

Types of content that might benefit from being defined as a structure include…

  • …documentation;
  • …a “Services” section, where the order of services matters;
  • …a company organization chart with personnel and teams;
  • …editable navigation menus;

Just like channels, entries in structures can be assigned types. Structures offer great flexibility in presentation—in particular, the ability to collect nested content on a parent page, or alter the appearance of pages based on their hierarchical “depth” within a bundle of content.

Structures can also make use of the Maintain Hierarchy setting on entries fields.

Entries belonging to a structure are discrete from nested entries in Matrix fields. Structure entries can be freely moved around in their hierarchy (receiving new “parent” elements in the process), whereas nested entries are always owned by the element they were created within.

# Custom Sources

Special element sources based on existing Singles, Channels, and Structures by creating custom sources. Each custom source lists all entries by default, but can be filtered to only those that meet the specified Entry Criteria.

To create a new custom source, go to EntriesCustomize Sources (under the three dots in the sources sidebar), and from the bottom-left “+” menu choose New custom source:

Screenshot of a modal window with fields for a new custom source: Label, Condition Builder, and Table Columns

This same interface is available in the search bar of any element index, but the condition builder interface will differ in subtle ways, as custom sources are stored in Project Config.

# Entry URI Formats

Channel and structure sections can choose whether their entries should be assigned URLs in the system by filling in the Entry URI Format setting. Singles have a “URI” setting, but it is typically defined statically or omitted (if it doesn’t need its own URL).

The entry URI format is an object template, which gets evaluated each time an entry in the section is saved. The result is saved as the entry’s URI in the system, and is used to generate URLs (i.e. via entry.url) and when Craft is determining how to route a request.

When Craft matches a request to an entry, its section’s designated Template is rendered. That template is automatically provided an entry variable, set to the resolved craft\elements\Entry (opens new window) object, and ready to output any of its attributes or custom field data.

# Hierarchical URIs

Structure sections may benefit from nested paths, for child entries:

{parent.uri}/{slug}

Suppose our structure represents geographic regions on Earth. With the above Entry URI Format, a top-level “continent” entry URI might be south-america; a nested “country” entry’s URI would then be south-america/chile.

Structure sections might also want to include a segment before the nested path:

{parent.uri ?? 'earth'}/{slug}

The above template could also be expressed with this syntax:

{% if level == 1 %}earth{% else %}{parent.uri}{% endif %}/{slug}

With the above Entry URI Format, a top-level entry’s URI would be earth/south-america, with a nested entry having earth/south-america/chile.

Consider these tips for creating special URIs:

  • A URI that evaluates to __home__ (and nothing more) will be available at your site’s base path;
  • An empty URI means the entry does not get a route and will not have a public URL—unless you define one manually via routes.php;
  • Any Twig statement can be used to output values in a URI template—including ones that query for other elements, e.g. {{ craft.entries().section('mySingle').one().slug }}/news;
  • Aliases can be evaluated with the alias() function: {{ alias('@basePressUri') }}/news, {{ alias('@mySectionUri') }}.
  • The null-coalescing operator (opens new window) (??) can silently swallow undefined variable errors (like parent.uri, above);

# Nested Entry URLs

Nested entries in Matrix fields can also be configured to have URLs—but the settings are part of the field, not a section.

A single entry type may have URLs in some contexts, and not in others!

# Preview Targets

If you’re using Craft Pro, your section can have one or more Preview Targets, or URLs where your entries will show up on. This makes it possible for authors to preview entries as they are writing them in the control panel, or share a private URL with colleagues to view changes prior to publishing.

Like entry URI formats, these preview target URLs are simple Twig templates that can contain entry properties and other dynamic values.

Use single curly braces to render attributes on the entry. For example if entries in your section have their own URLs, then you can create a preview target for the entry’s primary URL using the URL template, {url}.

Create additional preview targets for any other areas the entry might show up, such as news, or archive/{postDate|date('Y')}. If the entries show up on the homepage, you can create a preview target with a blank URL (unlike URI formats, a blank URL is valid, here).

A section’s Preview Targets setting.

Preview target URL Formats support slightly different features than for URI Formats:

  • If you want to include the entry’s ID or UID in a preview target URL, use {canonicalId} or {canonicalUid} rather than {id} or {uid}, so the source entry’s ID or UID is used rather than the draft’s;
  • You can use environment variables and aliases in the preview target URL. These do not get wrapped in curly braces on their own, as they are not part of the object template. Aliases may be part of a longer URI (e.g.@headlessUrl/news/{slug}), but environment variables can only be used on their own (e.g. $NEWS_INDEX);

When an author is editing an entry from a section with custom preview targets, the View button will be replaced with a menu that lists the Primary entry page (if the section has an Entry URI Format), plus the names of each preview target.

An entry’s View menu with 3 custom preview targets.

If you share a link from this menu that includes a preview token, it will expire by default after one day. You can customize this with the defaultTokenDuration config setting.

The targets will also be available within Preview.

# Previewing Decoupled Front Ends

If your site’s front end lives outside of Craft (e.g. as a Vue or React app), you can still support previewing drafts and revisions with Preview or Share buttons. To do that, your front end must check for the existence of a token query string parameter (or whatever the tokenParam setting is). If it’s in the URL, then you will need to pass that same token in the request that loads the page content. This token will cause the API request to respond with the correct content based on what the token was created to preview.

Whether you are using the Element API plugin or the built-in GraphQL API, Craft automatically injects preview elements whenever they match the query being executed.

To illustrate, suppose you were building a Nuxt (opens new window) application, and you used the file-based routing scheme (opens new window) to render blog posts: you would create pages/blog/[slug].vue, then define a preview target in Craft with a similar path, like @nuxt/blog/{slug}.

<script setup>
const route = useRoute();

// Construct a GraphQL fragment using the route param:
const query = `{
  entry(slug: "${route.params.slug}") {
    title
    description
  }
}`;

// Fetch the incoming token:
const token = route.query.token;

// Build the URL, with `query` and `token` params:
const { data: gql } = await useFetch('https://my-project.ddev.site/api', {
  params: { query, token },
});
</script>

<template>
  <article>
    <h1>{{ gql.data.entry.title }}</h1>
    <code>{{ gql.data.entry.uid }}</code>
  </article>
</template>

This assumes you have defined a GraphQL API route of api, and that the previewed entry will reliably have (at least) a slug set. When the token param is omitted, Nuxt ignores it and the GraphQL API will respond as though it were any other request for an entry with the given slug.

You can pass the token via either a query string parameter named after your tokenParam config setting, or an X-Craft-Token header.

For live preview, you should also consider enabling iFrame Resizer so that Craft can maintain the page scroll position between page loads.

# Nested Entries

Entries also power the Matrix field, which means your entry types can represent entire pages, or the building blocks thereof. How you implement your content model and authoring experience is entirely up to you!

# Editing Entries

If you have at least one section, there will be an Entries menu item in the primary control panel navigation. Clicking on it will take you to the entry index. From there, you can navigate to the entry you wish to edit, or create a new one.

Depending on your section’s settings, can perform some or all of the following actions from any entry’s edit screen:

  • Choose the entry type (if there is more than one to choose from);
  • Edit the entry’s Title, Slug, and custom field values;
  • Choose the entry’s Authors (Pro edition only);
  • Choose the entry’s Parent (if it’s within a Structure section);
  • Set the entry’s Post Date (when it will be considered published);
  • Set the entry’s Expiration Date (optional);
  • Choose whether the entry is Enabled or not (globally, and/or per-site);
  • Save changes to the entry;
  • Save a new draft of the entry;
  • View revisions of the entry;
  • Apply changes from a derivative (draft or revision);

If you leave the Post Date blank, Craft will automatically set it the first time an entry is saved as enabled.

# Entry Creation

As soon as you click New entry, Craft creates an empty entry, and redirects you to its edit screen. This gives the system a place to auto-save your edits—effectively a new entry represented only as a draft. Internally, this is called a “fresh” entry.

Once you add some content to a fresh entry (or explicitly choose Save draft from the Create entry menu), Craft marks the draft as having been saved, and will expose it in element indexes when using the All or Draft status options.

Stray drafts (those that were created but never edited or explicitly saved) are automatically garbage-collected, respecting the purgeUnsavedDraftsDuration setting.

The entry editing lifecycle is designed to provide authors clear, actionable information about the state of their content, and to prevent unintended loss. Let’s look more closely at a few supporting features.

# Drafts

As soon as you alter a field on an entry, Craft auto-saves the changes as a provisional draft.

Screenshot of an entry with unsaved changes

Subsequent edits are also saved to your provisional draft, and made available any time you view that entry in the control panel. Each user gets their own provisional draft, so your changes are private.

Pressing the Save button applies changes from a provisional draft to its canonical entry, and creates a revision (if its section supports revisions).

If you aren’t ready to publish your changes, you can instead press Create a Draft to save your work as a new draft. You may have as many regular drafts as you wish—and those drafts can have their own name and notes to help you track what you’re working on. The name of your current draft (if any) is shown at the top of the edit screen in the revision menu.

Your drafts may be visible to (and editable by) other users! While an auto-saved provisional draft is always private, the visibility of saved drafts is governed by users’ permissions for the entry’s section.

While Craft’s auto-saving behavior creates a provisional draft from the canonical entry, edits to an existing, explicitly-saved draft are saved directly to that draft—in other words, Craft doesn’t create drafts for another draft!

When your edits are ready to be published, press Apply draft to merge the changes into the canonical entry.

# Revisions

Any time you apply a draft (provisional or otherwise) to the canonical entry, Craft creates a revision. Revisions track which fields and attributes changed each time the canonical entry is updated, and provide a means to revert to previous versions of an entry. Drafts and revisions both have a creator property that stores what user initiated the update separately from the “author.”

The revision menu only displays the ten most recent revisions. Older revisions are available via the View all revisions → link at the bottom of the menu.

Any time a revision is created, Craft pushes a job into the queue to ensure the oldest one(s) are pruned (if there are more revisions than allowed by the maxRevisions setting).

# Querying for Revisions

You can find drafts and revisions of a specific entry using the draftOf() and revisionOf() query params.

# Trash

All elements support soft-deletion. When you delete an entry, its dateDeleted property is set to the current time, and Craft excludes it from results—unless the trashed query param is used. Similarly, when restoring a deleted entry, its dateDeleted is set to null.

Entries remain in the “trashed” state until they are manually hard-deleted from the control panel or their dateDeleted is longer ago than the softDeleteDuration setting when garbage collection runs.

The trash should not be used to temporarily remove content from your site. Restoring trashed entries is only intended as a means to recover inadvertently-deleted content—instead, use the global or site-specific Enabled settings. Entries can remain disabled indefinitely.

# Activity

Craft keeps track of user activity on entries, and will push presence pips and notifications to anyone working with drafts of the same entry.

my-craft-project.ddev.site/admin/entries/blog/247
Screenshot of the entry edit screen with other active users
Other users editing the same entry will appear in the page header. TJ has corrected the page title in a draft.

Notifications will appear in the bottom-left corner along with other flashes, and prompt you to reload the entry if it has changed since you opened it. This can play out in a couple ways:

  • If another user applied a draft to the canonical entry while you were working on a provisional draft, Craft will merge all non-conflicting edits into your provisional draft. In situations where you both made changes to a field, Craft keeps your changes.
  • If only the other user made a change, the page simply refreshes to show the new canonical entry content.

Automatic merging of changes from canonical entries is nondestructive, and non-optional. Merging occurs just before an entry’s edit screen is viewed.

# Querying Entries

While an entry’s configured template will automatically make an entry variable available, you can fetch entries throughout your templates or PHP code using entry queries.

{# Create a new entry query #}
{% set myEntryQuery = craft.entries() %}

Once you’ve created an entry query, you can set parameters on it to narrow down the results, and then execute it by calling .all(). An array of Entry (opens new window) objects will be returned.

See Element Queries to learn about how element queries work.

# Example

We can display the 10 most recent entries in a “Blog” section by doing the following:

  1. Create an entry query with craft.entries().
  2. Set the section and limit parameters on it.
  3. Fetch the entries with .all().
  4. Loop through the entries using a for (opens new window) tag to output the blog post HTML.
{# Create an entry query with the 'section' and 'limit' parameters #}
{% set myEntryQuery = craft.entries()
  .section('blog')
  .limit(10) %}

{# Fetch the entries #}
{% set entries = myEntryQuery.all() %}

{# Display the entries #}
{% for entry in entries %}
  <article>
    <h1><a href="{{ entry.url }}">{{ entry.title }}</a></h1>
    {{ entry.summary }}
    <a href="{{ entry.url }}">Continue reading</a>
  </article>
{% endfor %}

# Parameters

Entry queries support the following parameters:

This auto-generated reference material has not yet been updated for Craft 5!

Param Description
ElementCollection collect($db = null)
after Narrows the query results to only entries that were posted on or after a certain date.
afterPopulate Performs any post-population processing on elements.
allowOwnerDrafts Narrows the query results based on whether the entries’ owners are drafts.
allowOwnerRevisions Narrows the query results based on whether the entries’ owners are revisions.
ancestorDist Narrows the query results to only entries that are up to a certain distance away from the entry specified by ancestorOf.
ancestorOf Narrows the query results to only entries that are ancestors of another entry in its structure.
andRelatedTo Narrows the query results to only entries that are related to certain other elements.
asArray Causes the query to return matching entries as arrays of data, rather than Entry objects.
authorGroup Narrows the query results based on the user group the entries’ authors belong to.
authorGroupId Narrows the query results based on the user group the entries’ authors belong to, per the groups’ IDs.
authorId Narrows the query results based on the entries’ author ID(s).
before Narrows the query results to only entries that were posted before a certain date.
cache Enables query cache for this Query.
clearCachedResult Clears the cached result (opens new window).
dateCreated Narrows the query results based on the entries’ creation dates.
dateUpdated Narrows the query results based on the entries’ last-updated dates.
descendantDist Narrows the query results to only entries that are up to a certain distance away from the entry specified by descendantOf.
descendantOf Narrows the query results to only entries that are descendants of another entry in its structure.
draftCreator Narrows the query results to only drafts created by a given user.
draftId Narrows the query results based on the entries’ draft’s ID (from the drafts table).
draftOf Narrows the query results to only drafts of a given entry.
drafts Narrows the query results to only drafts entries.
eagerly Causes the query to be used to eager-load results for the query’s source element and any other elements in its collection.
expiryDate Narrows the query results based on the entries’ expiry dates.
field Narrows the query results based on the field the entries are contained by.
fieldId Narrows the query results based on the field the entries are contained by, per the fields’ IDs.
fixedOrder Causes the query results to be returned in the order specified by id.
hasDescendants Narrows the query results based on whether the entries have any descendants in their structure.
id Narrows the query results based on the entries’ IDs.
ignorePlaceholders Causes the query to return matching entries as they are stored in the database, ignoring matching placeholder elements that were set by craft\services\Elements::setPlaceholderElement() (opens new window).
inBulkOp Narrows the query results to only entries that were involved in a bulk element operation.
inReverse Causes the query results to be returned in reverse order.
leaves Narrows the query results based on whether the entries are “leaves” (entries with no descendants).
level Narrows the query results based on the entries’ level within the structure.
limit Determines the number of entries that should be returned.
nextSiblingOf Narrows the query results to only the entry that comes immediately after another entry in its structure.
offset Determines how many entries should be skipped in the results.
orderBy Determines the order that the entries should be returned in. (If empty, defaults to postDate DESC, or the order defined by the section if the section or sectionId params are set to a single Structure section.)
owner Sets the ownerId and siteId parameters based on a given element.
ownerId Narrows the query results based on the owner element of the entries, per the owners’ IDs.
positionedAfter Narrows the query results to only entries that are positioned after another entry in its structure.
positionedBefore Narrows the query results to only entries that are positioned before another entry in its structure.
postDate Narrows the query results based on the entries’ post dates.
preferSites If unique is set, this determines which site should be selected when querying multi-site elements.
prepForEagerLoading Prepares the query for lazy eager loading.
prepareSubquery Prepares the element query and returns its subquery (which determines what elements will be returned).
prevSiblingOf Narrows the query results to only the entry that comes immediately before another entry in its structure.
primaryOwner Sets the primaryOwnerId and siteId parameters based on a given element.
primaryOwnerId Narrows the query results based on the primary owner element of the entries, per the owners’ IDs.
provisionalDrafts Narrows the query results to only provisional drafts.
relatedTo Narrows the query results to only entries that are related to certain other elements.
render Executes the query and renders the resulting elements using their partial templates.
revisionCreator Narrows the query results to only revisions created by a given user.
revisionId Narrows the query results based on the entries’ revision’s ID (from the revisions table).
revisionOf Narrows the query results to only revisions of a given entry.
revisions Narrows the query results to only revision entries.
savable Sets the savable (opens new window) property.
savedDraftsOnly Narrows the query results to only unpublished drafts which have been saved after initial creation.
search Narrows the query results to only entries that match a search query.
section Narrows the query results based on the sections the entries belong to.
sectionId Narrows the query results based on the sections the entries belong to, per the sections’ IDs.
siblingOf Narrows the query results to only entries that are siblings of another entry in its structure.
site Determines which site(s) the entries should be queried in.
siteId Determines which site(s) the entries should be queried in, per the site’s ID.
siteSettingsId Narrows the query results based on the entries’ IDs in the elements_sites table.
slug Narrows the query results based on the entries’ slugs.
status Narrows the query results based on the entries’ statuses.
title Narrows the query results based on the entries’ titles.
trashed Narrows the query results to only entries that have been soft-deleted.
type Narrows the query results based on the entries’ entry types.
typeId Narrows the query results based on the entries’ entry types, per the types’ IDs.
uid Narrows the query results based on the entries’ UIDs.
unique Determines whether only elements with unique IDs should be returned by the query.
uri Narrows the query results based on the entries’ URIs.
wasCountEagerLoaded Returns whether the query result count was already eager loaded by the query's source element.
wasEagerLoaded Returns whether the query results were already eager loaded by the query's source element.
with Causes the query to return matching entries eager-loaded with related elements.

# ElementCollection

collect($db = null)

# after

Narrows the query results to only entries that were posted on or after a certain date.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'2018-04-01' that were posted after 2018-04-01.
a DateTime (opens new window) object that were posted after the date represented by the object.
now/today/tomorrow/yesterday that were posted after midnight of the specified relative date.
{# Fetch entries posted this month #}
{% set firstDayOfMonth = date('first day of this month') %}

{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .after(firstDayOfMonth)
  .all() %}

# afterPopulate

Performs any post-population processing on elements.

# allowOwnerDrafts

Narrows the query results based on whether the entries’ owners are drafts.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
true which can belong to a draft.
false which cannot belong to a draft.

# allowOwnerRevisions

Narrows the query results based on whether the entries’ owners are revisions.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
true which can belong to a revision.
false which cannot belong to a revision.

# ancestorDist

Narrows the query results to only entries that are up to a certain distance away from the entry specified by ancestorOf.

{# Fetch entries above this one #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .ancestorOf(myEntry)
  .ancestorDist(3)
  .all() %}

# ancestorOf

Narrows the query results to only entries that are ancestors of another entry in its structure.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 above the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object above the entry represented by the object.
{# Fetch entries above this one #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .ancestorOf(myEntry)
  .all() %}

This can be combined with ancestorDist if you want to limit how far away the ancestor entries can be.

# andRelatedTo

Narrows the query results to only entries that are related to certain other elements.

See Relations (opens new window) for a full explanation of how to work with this parameter.

{# Fetch all entries that are related to myCategoryA and myCategoryB #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .relatedTo(myCategoryA)
  .andRelatedTo(myCategoryB)
  .all() %}

# asArray

Causes the query to return matching entries as arrays of data, rather than Entry objects.

{# Fetch entries as arrays #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .asArray()
  .all() %}

# authorGroup

Narrows the query results based on the user group the entries’ authors belong to.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'foo' with an author in a group with a handle of foo.
'not foo' not with an author in a group with a handle of foo.
['foo', 'bar'] with an author in a group with a handle of foo or bar.
['not', 'foo', 'bar'] not with an author in a group with a handle of foo or bar.
a UserGroup object with an author in a group represented by the object.
an array of UserGroup objects with an author in a group represented by the objects.
{# Fetch entries with an author in the Foo user group #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .authorGroup('foo')
  .all() %}

# authorGroupId

Narrows the query results based on the user group the entries’ authors belong to, per the groups’ IDs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 with an author in a group with an ID of 1.
'not 1' not with an author in a group with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] with an author in a group with an ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not with an author in a group with an ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch entries with an author in a group with an ID of 1 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .authorGroupId(1)
  .all() %}

# authorId

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ author ID(s).

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 with an author with an ID of 1.
'not 1' not with an author with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] with an author with an ID of 1 or 2.
['and', 1, 2] with authors with IDs of 1 and 2.
['not', 1, 2] not with an author with an ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch entries with an author with an ID of 1 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .authorId(1)
  .all() %}

# before

Narrows the query results to only entries that were posted before a certain date.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'2018-04-01' that were posted before 2018-04-01.
a DateTime (opens new window) object that were posted before the date represented by the object.
now/today/tomorrow/yesterday that were posted before midnight of specified relative date.
{# Fetch entries posted before this month #}
{% set firstDayOfMonth = date('first day of this month') %}

{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .before(firstDayOfMonth)
  .all() %}

# cache

Enables query cache for this Query.

# clearCachedResult

Clears the cached result (opens new window).

# dateCreated

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ creation dates.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'>= 2018-04-01' that were created on or after 2018-04-01.
'< 2018-05-01' that were created before 2018-05-01.
['and', '>= 2018-04-04', '< 2018-05-01'] that were created between 2018-04-01 and 2018-05-01.
now/today/tomorrow/yesterday that were created at midnight of the specified relative date.
{# Fetch entries created last month #}
{% set start = date('first day of last month')|atom %}
{% set end = date('first day of this month')|atom %}

{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .dateCreated(['and', ">= #{start}", "< #{end}"])
  .all() %}

# dateUpdated

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ last-updated dates.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'>= 2018-04-01' that were updated on or after 2018-04-01.
'< 2018-05-01' that were updated before 2018-05-01.
['and', '>= 2018-04-04', '< 2018-05-01'] that were updated between 2018-04-01 and 2018-05-01.
now/today/tomorrow/yesterday that were updated at midnight of the specified relative date.
{# Fetch entries updated in the last week #}
{% set lastWeek = date('1 week ago')|atom %}

{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .dateUpdated(">= #{lastWeek}")
  .all() %}

# descendantDist

Narrows the query results to only entries that are up to a certain distance away from the entry specified by descendantOf.

{# Fetch entries below this one #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .descendantOf(myEntry)
  .descendantDist(3)
  .all() %}

# descendantOf

Narrows the query results to only entries that are descendants of another entry in its structure.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 below the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object below the entry represented by the object.
{# Fetch entries below this one #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .descendantOf(myEntry)
  .all() %}

This can be combined with descendantDist if you want to limit how far away the descendant entries can be.

# draftCreator

Narrows the query results to only drafts created by a given user.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches drafts…
1 created by the user with an ID of 1.
a craft\elements\User object created by the user represented by the object.
{# Fetch drafts by the current user #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .draftCreator(currentUser)
  .all() %}

# draftId

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ draft’s ID (from the drafts table).

Possible values include:

Value Fetches drafts…
1 for the draft with an ID of 1.
{# Fetch a draft #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .draftId(10)
  .all() %}

# draftOf

Narrows the query results to only drafts of a given entry.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches drafts…
1 for the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object for the entry represented by the object.
'*' for any entry
false that aren’t associated with a published entry
{# Fetch drafts of the entry #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .draftOf(myEntry)
  .all() %}

# drafts

Narrows the query results to only drafts entries.

{# Fetch a draft entry #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .drafts()
  .id(123)
  .one() %}

# eagerly

Causes the query to be used to eager-load results for the query’s source element and any other elements in its collection.

# expiryDate

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ expiry dates.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
':empty:' that don’t have an expiry date.
':notempty:' that have an expiry date.
'>= 2020-04-01' that will expire on or after 2020-04-01.
'< 2020-05-01' that will expire before 2020-05-01
['and', '>= 2020-04-04', '< 2020-05-01'] that will expire between 2020-04-01 and 2020-05-01.
now/today/tomorrow/yesterday that expire at midnight of the specified relative date.
{# Fetch entries expiring this month #}
{% set nextMonth = date('first day of next month')|atom %}

{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .expiryDate("< #{nextMonth}")
  .all() %}

# field

Narrows the query results based on the field the entries are contained by.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'foo' in a field with a handle of foo.
['foo', 'bar'] in a field with a handle of foo or bar.
a \craft\elements\db\craft\fields\Matrix object in a field represented by the object.
{# Fetch entries in the Foo field #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .field('foo')
  .all() %}

# fieldId

Narrows the query results based on the field the entries are contained by, per the fields’ IDs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 in a field with an ID of 1.
'not 1' not in a field with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] in a field with an ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not in a field with an ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch entries in the field with an ID of 1 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .fieldId(1)
  .all() %}

# fixedOrder

Causes the query results to be returned in the order specified by id.

If no IDs were passed to id, setting this to true will result in an empty result set.

{# Fetch entries in a specific order #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .id([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
  .fixedOrder()
  .all() %}

# hasDescendants

Narrows the query results based on whether the entries have any descendants in their structure.

(This has the opposite effect of calling leaves.)

{# Fetch entries that have descendants #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .hasDescendants()
  .all() %}

# id

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ IDs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 with an ID of 1.
'not 1' not with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] with an ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not with an ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch the entry by its ID #}
{% set entry = craft.entries()
  .id(1)
  .one() %}

This can be combined with fixedOrder if you want the results to be returned in a specific order.

# ignorePlaceholders

Causes the query to return matching entries as they are stored in the database, ignoring matching placeholder elements that were set by craft\services\Elements::setPlaceholderElement() (opens new window).

# inBulkOp

Narrows the query results to only entries that were involved in a bulk element operation.

# inReverse

Causes the query results to be returned in reverse order.

{# Fetch entries in reverse #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .inReverse()
  .all() %}

# leaves

Narrows the query results based on whether the entries are “leaves” (entries with no descendants).

(This has the opposite effect of calling hasDescendants.)

{# Fetch entries that have no descendants #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .leaves()
  .all() %}

# level

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ level within the structure.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 with a level of 1.
'not 1' not with a level of 1.
'>= 3' with a level greater than or equal to 3.
[1, 2] with a level of 1 or 2.
[null, 1] without a level, or a level of 1.
['not', 1, 2] not with level of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch entries positioned at level 3 or above #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .level('>= 3')
  .all() %}

# limit

Determines the number of entries that should be returned.

{# Fetch up to 10 entries  #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .limit(10)
  .all() %}

# nextSiblingOf

Narrows the query results to only the entry that comes immediately after another entry in its structure.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches the entry…
1 after the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object after the entry represented by the object.
{# Fetch the next entry #}
{% set entry = craft.entries()
  .nextSiblingOf(myEntry)
  .one() %}

# offset

Determines how many entries should be skipped in the results.

{# Fetch all entries except for the first 3 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .offset(3)
  .all() %}

# orderBy

Determines the order that the entries should be returned in. (If empty, defaults to postDate DESC, or the order defined by the section if the section or sectionId params are set to a single Structure section.)

{# Fetch all entries in order of date created #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .orderBy('dateCreated ASC')
  .all() %}

# owner

Sets the ownerId and siteId parameters based on a given element.

{# Fetch entries created for this entry #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .owner(myEntry)
  .all() %}

# ownerId

Narrows the query results based on the owner element of the entries, per the owners’ IDs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 created for an element with an ID of 1.
'not 1' not created for an element with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] created for an element with an ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not created for an element with an ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch entries created for an element with an ID of 1 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .ownerId(1)
  .all() %}

# positionedAfter

Narrows the query results to only entries that are positioned after another entry in its structure.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 after the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object after the entry represented by the object.
{# Fetch entries after this one #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .positionedAfter(myEntry)
  .all() %}

# positionedBefore

Narrows the query results to only entries that are positioned before another entry in its structure.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 before the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object before the entry represented by the object.
{# Fetch entries before this one #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .positionedBefore(myEntry)
  .all() %}

# postDate

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ post dates.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'>= 2018-04-01' that were posted on or after 2018-04-01.
'< 2018-05-01' that were posted before 2018-05-01.
['and', '>= 2018-04-04', '< 2018-05-01'] that were posted between 2018-04-01 and 2018-05-01.
now/today/tomorrow/yesterday that were posted at midnight of the specified relative date.
{# Fetch entries posted last month #}
{% set start = date('first day of last month')|atom %}
{% set end = date('first day of this month')|atom %}

{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .postDate(['and', ">= #{start}", "< #{end}"])
  .all() %}

# preferSites

If unique is set, this determines which site should be selected when querying multi-site elements.

For example, if element “Foo” exists in Site A and Site B, and element “Bar” exists in Site B and Site C, and this is set to ['c', 'b', 'a'], then Foo will be returned for Site B, and Bar will be returned for Site C.

If this isn’t set, then preference goes to the current site.

{# Fetch unique entries from Site A, or Site B if they don’t exist in Site A #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .site('*')
  .unique()
  .preferSites(['a', 'b'])
  .all() %}

# prepForEagerLoading

Prepares the query for lazy eager loading.

# prepareSubquery

Prepares the element query and returns its subquery (which determines what elements will be returned).

# prevSiblingOf

Narrows the query results to only the entry that comes immediately before another entry in its structure.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches the entry…
1 before the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object before the entry represented by the object.
{# Fetch the previous entry #}
{% set entry = craft.entries()
  .prevSiblingOf(myEntry)
  .one() %}

# primaryOwner

Sets the primaryOwnerId and siteId parameters based on a given element.

{# Fetch entries created for this entry #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .primaryOwner(myEntry)
  .all() %}

# primaryOwnerId

Narrows the query results based on the primary owner element of the entries, per the owners’ IDs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 created for an element with an ID of 1.
'not 1' not created for an element with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] created for an element with an ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not created for an element with an ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch entries created for an element with an ID of 1 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .primaryOwnerId(1)
  .all() %}

# provisionalDrafts

Narrows the query results to only provisional drafts.

{# Fetch provisional drafts created by the current user #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .provisionalDrafts()
  .draftCreator(currentUser)
  .all() %}

# relatedTo

Narrows the query results to only entries that are related to certain other elements.

See Relations (opens new window) for a full explanation of how to work with this parameter.

{# Fetch all entries that are related to myCategory #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .relatedTo(myCategory)
  .all() %}

# render

Executes the query and renders the resulting elements using their partial templates.

If no partial template exists for an element, its string representation will be output instead.

# revisionCreator

Narrows the query results to only revisions created by a given user.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches revisions…
1 created by the user with an ID of 1.
a craft\elements\User object created by the user represented by the object.
{# Fetch revisions by the current user #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .revisionCreator(currentUser)
  .all() %}

# revisionId

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ revision’s ID (from the revisions table).

Possible values include:

Value Fetches revisions…
1 for the revision with an ID of 1.
{# Fetch a revision #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .revisionId(10)
  .all() %}

# revisionOf

Narrows the query results to only revisions of a given entry.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches revisions…
1 for the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object for the entry represented by the object.
{# Fetch revisions of the entry #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .revisionOf(myEntry)
  .all() %}

# revisions

Narrows the query results to only revision entries.

{# Fetch a revision entry #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .revisions()
  .id(123)
  .one() %}

# savable

Sets the savable (opens new window) property.

# savedDraftsOnly

Narrows the query results to only unpublished drafts which have been saved after initial creation.

{# Fetch saved, unpublished draft entries #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .draftOf(false)
  .savedDraftsOnly()
  .all() %}

Narrows the query results to only entries that match a search query.

See Searching (opens new window) for a full explanation of how to work with this parameter.

{# Get the search query from the 'q' query string param #}
{% set searchQuery = craft.app.request.getQueryParam('q') %}

{# Fetch all entries that match the search query #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .search(searchQuery)
  .all() %}

# section

Narrows the query results based on the sections the entries belong to.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'foo' in a section with a handle of foo.
'not foo' not in a section with a handle of foo.
['foo', 'bar'] in a section with a handle of foo or bar.
['not', 'foo', 'bar'] not in a section with a handle of foo or bar.
a Section object in a section represented by the object.
{# Fetch entries in the Foo section #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .section('foo')
  .all() %}

# sectionId

Narrows the query results based on the sections the entries belong to, per the sections’ IDs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 in a section with an ID of 1.
'not 1' not in a section with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] in a section with an ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not in a section with an ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch entries in the section with an ID of 1 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .sectionId(1)
  .all() %}

# siblingOf

Narrows the query results to only entries that are siblings of another entry in its structure.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 beside the entry with an ID of 1.
a Entry object beside the entry represented by the object.
{# Fetch entries beside this one #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .siblingOf(myEntry)
  .all() %}

# site

Determines which site(s) the entries should be queried in.

The current site will be used by default.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'foo' from the site with a handle of foo.
['foo', 'bar'] from a site with a handle of foo or bar.
['not', 'foo', 'bar'] not in a site with a handle of foo or bar.
a craft\models\Site object from the site represented by the object.
'*' from any site.

If multiple sites are specified, elements that belong to multiple sites will be returned multiple times. If you only want unique elements to be returned, use unique in conjunction with this.

{# Fetch entries from the Foo site #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .site('foo')
  .all() %}

# siteId

Determines which site(s) the entries should be queried in, per the site’s ID.

The current site will be used by default.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 from the site with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] from a site with an ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not in a site with an ID of 1 or 2.
'*' from any site.
{# Fetch entries from the site with an ID of 1 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .siteId(1)
  .all() %}

# siteSettingsId

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ IDs in the elements_sites table.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 with an elements_sites ID of 1.
'not 1' not with an elements_sites ID of 1.
[1, 2] with an elements_sites ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not with an elements_sites ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch the entry by its ID in the elements_sites table #}
{% set entry = craft.entries()
  .siteSettingsId(1)
  .one() %}

# slug

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ slugs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'foo' with a slug of foo.
'foo*' with a slug that begins with foo.
'*foo' with a slug that ends with foo.
'*foo*' with a slug that contains foo.
'not *foo*' with a slug that doesn’t contain foo.
['*foo*', '*bar*'] with a slug that contains foo or bar.
['not', '*foo*', '*bar*'] with a slug that doesn’t contain foo or bar.
{# Get the requested entry slug from the URL #}
{% set requestedSlug = craft.app.request.getSegment(3) %}

{# Fetch the entry with that slug #}
{% set entry = craft.entries()
  .slug(requestedSlug|literal)
  .one() %}

# status

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ statuses.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'live' (default) that are live.
'pending' that are pending (enabled with a Post Date in the future).
'expired' that are expired (enabled with an Expiry Date in the past).
'disabled' that are disabled.
['live', 'pending'] that are live or pending.
['not', 'live', 'pending'] that are not live or pending.
{# Fetch disabled entries #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .status('disabled')
  .all() %}

# title

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ titles.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'Foo' with a title of Foo.
'Foo*' with a title that begins with Foo.
'*Foo' with a title that ends with Foo.
'*Foo*' with a title that contains Foo.
'not *Foo*' with a title that doesn’t contain Foo.
['*Foo*', '*Bar*'] with a title that contains Foo or Bar.
['not', '*Foo*', '*Bar*'] with a title that doesn’t contain Foo or Bar.
{# Fetch entries with a title that contains "Foo" #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .title('*Foo*')
  .all() %}

# trashed

Narrows the query results to only entries that have been soft-deleted.

{# Fetch trashed entries #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .trashed()
  .all() %}

# type

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ entry types.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'foo' of a type with a handle of foo.
'not foo' not of a type with a handle of foo.
['foo', 'bar'] of a type with a handle of foo or bar.
['not', 'foo', 'bar'] not of a type with a handle of foo or bar.
an EntryType object of a type represented by the object.
{# Fetch entries in the Foo section with a Bar entry type #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .section('foo')
  .type('bar')
  .all() %}

# typeId

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ entry types, per the types’ IDs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
1 of a type with an ID of 1.
'not 1' not of a type with an ID of 1.
[1, 2] of a type with an ID of 1 or 2.
['not', 1, 2] not of a type with an ID of 1 or 2.
{# Fetch entries of the entry type with an ID of 1 #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .typeId(1)
  .all() %}

# uid

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ UIDs.

{# Fetch the entry by its UID #}
{% set entry = craft.entries()
  .uid('xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx')
  .one() %}

# unique

Determines whether only elements with unique IDs should be returned by the query.

This should be used when querying elements from multiple sites at the same time, if “duplicate” results is not desired.

{# Fetch unique entries across all sites #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .site('*')
  .unique()
  .all() %}

# uri

Narrows the query results based on the entries’ URIs.

Possible values include:

Value Fetches entries…
'foo' with a URI of foo.
'foo*' with a URI that begins with foo.
'*foo' with a URI that ends with foo.
'*foo*' with a URI that contains foo.
'not *foo*' with a URI that doesn’t contain foo.
['*foo*', '*bar*'] with a URI that contains foo or bar.
['not', '*foo*', '*bar*'] with a URI that doesn’t contain foo or bar.
{# Get the requested URI #}
{% set requestedUri = craft.app.request.getPathInfo() %}

{# Fetch the entry with that URI #}
{% set entry = craft.entries()
  .uri(requestedUri|literal)
  .one() %}

# wasCountEagerLoaded

Returns whether the query result count was already eager loaded by the query's source element.

# wasEagerLoaded

Returns whether the query results were already eager loaded by the query's source element.

# with

Causes the query to return matching entries eager-loaded with related elements.

See Eager-Loading Elements (opens new window) for a full explanation of how to work with this parameter.

{# Fetch entries eager-loaded with the "Related" field’s relations #}
{% set entries = craft.entries()
  .with(['related'])
  .all() %}
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